How Brand as an Intellectual Property has Led to Corporate Globalisation?


Globalisation is referred to as a set of profound material changes that have an impact on relations between societies in the past few decades. The identifiable features of these material changes are witnessed in the development and growth of web, satellite transmission, fibre-optic technology, broadband operations, transnational corporations and the emergence of World Trade Organisation.

Globalisation is transformation of how ideas travel and the nature of their final destination leading to increase in international trade thereby increased competition. Firms expand by penetrating established markets to create new markets for their products. This necessitates them to have identity for them by establishing trademarks by way of branding and keep on administering to create value. While expanding and penetrating newer markets; developing, promoting and performing marketing operations using different trade marks for different countries become costlier. The more the countries a trademark is known, the greater is its value and the greater the need to protect the same by registering at the global level. Trademark registration involves not only higher costs but also procedural constraints while registering the same in every country.

Brands have become part of not only an economic market, but also a metaphorical market because they involve and propagate a system of using signs to control meaning and language as brands fulfils several different economic functions.

Identification: On a basic level, it serves an identification function by associating a product with a company.

Communication: More abstractly, it has an informative function, in that it provides a vehicle for the efficient communication of information, thereby reducing consumer search costs in choosing a product. Signaling: The use of branding in advertising also serves a signaling function, in that, it suggests that a company who is willing to expend a substantial sum on its advertising must have developed a good product. Expression: Lastly, branding also serves an expressive function, in the sense that it links a particular consumer identity or essence with a product.

Mega – branding Strategy

Branding involves not just the product name, advertisements, or the use of a logo, but the core assumptions and beliefs that are conjured up when one thinks of the brand. The best brands were those who could generate a certain psychological feeling about the product. Thus, the “brand essence” moved away from a focus on the product and toward a psychological association of the brand with a certain identity. Today, firms undertake “mega-branding” strategy, in which firms devote a substantial portion of their income towards placing their logo on a variety of different products and events, further amplifying the link between psychological, cultural and corporate association. In this way manufacturers control both supply and demand by manipulating consumer trends through the skilful promotion of the brand.

Brand Plan – A Valuable Management Tool

Brand plan is a crucial step in charting a business route to success. A good brand plan provides an overview of where the brand is, how it plans to position or reposition itself, and how it seeks to achieve its business objectives. A well-prepared and regularly updated brand plan is a valuable management tool that serves variety of purposes. It helps examine the feasibility of taking a brand idea to the market. A written brand plan forces a firm to think through all the key issues – such as the potential demand, the nature of the competition, entry barriers, the unique selling proposition, key employees, relevant technologies and strategic partners, raising funds, projected start-up costs, and the like.

A brand plan is a reference document that provides management with an objective basis for determining whether the brand is on track to meet its goals and objectives with the available resources in a set timeframe. Innovation is very important and critical to the future of the brands. Context, Leadership and core values of the brands are the drivers of innovation. One needs to address “What is the current situation of the brand? What threats for survival might exist?”, “What is the leadership passionate about? What drives the choices, decisions and behaviour in the organisation? How innovation and creativity improve brand? How this can be strengthened to be considered as a global brand? Customer analysis and brainstorming help generate ideas for innovation. Internal sources and customers are the best sources of ideas.

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) has initiated and promoted the Madrid Protocol, which establishes a system for the international registration of trademarks to reduce this cost due to multiple registrations in different countries. This protocol is termed as the Intellectual Property Rights. Intellectual Property Rights cover Patents, Trade-marks, Industrial designs, Copy rights & related rights, Geographical indications and Trade secrets & Undisclosed information. Trademarks have become more than a means of protecting market share. They have become an invaluable tool in claiming and creating markets. From just being a trade mark, they become trust marks as brands. According to the author and journalist Naomi Klein, “branded world where the logo is a common language understood by everyone” leading to a shift in corporate marketing strategies: from promoting commodities based on the needs of the marketplace, to promoting a brand to represent a lifestyle thereby create needs in the marketplace. The branding strategy makes the trademark and the socio-cultural identities associated with the mark including the product itself.

Intellectual property in a brand plan becomes critical as business incubator or investors need to understand and accept the coherence of the brand idea including its protection. New or original knowledge and/or creative expression of ideas, protectable by the system of intellectual property (IP), underpin their competitive advantage and success. Therefore, a brand plan should cogently reflect how the firm plans to protect, manage and leverage its intellectual property assets for brand success. Patents for Brands provide exclusivity for the commercialization of inventions and often play a crucial role in convincing investors or lenders. One or more patents along with industrial design registrations reflect as a proof of brands ability to dissuade competitors using original or aesthetically attractive features of the brand. Therefore, a brand plan should integrate intellectual property and reflect the steps that are planned to develop, register and effective use of intangible assets to win and retain market share from competitors.

While integrating intellectual property, operational elements that make the brand innovative like, Challenge, customer focus, creativity, communication, collaboration, completion and contemplation should also be considered.

The possibility of inadvertently infringing a third party’s intellectual property rights is high in high-tech sectors. Confidential information such as details of production, inventions, and technical, financial and marketing know-how is often the source of competitive advantage. Intellectual Property can be a highly valuable asset. Managing and ascribing a value on the balance sheet of the brand will make it more attractive to potential investors. The more the position in the market place is exploited, more the value will be of the property while licensing it or selling the brand.

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Energy Efficiency: Find the Potential in Your Home

Finding savings potential is the life of an Energy Auditor. The fun part is simple: no two homes are exactly the same and finding power savings potential in each home is golden. Looking for areas where energy efficiency can be increased and electric waste can be stopped becomes an energy auditors hunt for gold. Every home has energy efficiency potential, whether the home was constructed in 1911 or one hundreds years later.

The trouble is, we all can not be trained energy auditors: we all can not run around our homes with a blower door and a smoke puffer. To most of us, a duct blaster would do us about as much good as a gold pan and metal detector.

The potential for saving electricity is usually found in areas of a home where something is missing. A n energy auditor looks for missing components of home power efficiency. Across the country, typical homes use as much as two times the energy as is necessary to maintain comfort and convenience. This unnecessary power use costs about 45 billion annually.

Are your power bills heading north and growing like a redwood? Well, you are simply doing your part in covering that 45 billion. Little here and a little there, we do our best to help pay for the countries energy waste. The missing insulation, air sealing, and lack of efficient heating and cooling systems drives the waste that costs us all so much.

Energy Efficiency:

Fortunately, we do not need to continue to pay a share of the countries waste, we can choose to look for the potential savings in our home and let the neighbors pay the waste bill.

The do-it-yourself energy auditor with a desire for lower power bills has a better chance of finding energy savings than the average prospector with a gold dredge. If looking for energy waste is not your thing, but you would like to save energy and lower your power bill, contact you power provider and inquire about their program for providing free home energy audits. You will be surprised how much your power provider would like to have you save energy.

Use the Retrofit to Increase Energy Efficiency:

A retrofit is a change or addition to a home, or the homes heating system, that increases conservation. Retrofits can be the result of a homeowner that is sick of energy waste and high power bills or retrofits can be part of a weatherization program. Across the country – State and County weatherization programs set a great example for saving energy.

The weatherization programs are often utility sponsored and households that take part save about 23% on heating cost and 26% on cooling. All income level households can find some level of weatherization program that will assist them in conservation retrofits by contacting their power provider.

Residential weatherization programs use four main strategies to reach potential energy efficiency.

Retrofits to the building shell:

Studies in home electrical and gas waste point to holes in the building shell as a huge contributor to energy waste. Energy Auditors have learned that air leakage can vary greatly from home to home and energy savings come primarily from plugging large leaks.

Improved insulation products and installation methods have made retrofit insulation projects increasingly effective in maintaining an efficient thermal barrier. Insulation, air sealing, and heating duct sealing are cost effective by paying for themselves in energy savings in just a few years.

The continued development of improved window glass, coatings, and window frame stability have made window retrofits increasingly more energy efficient.

Thermal Improvements:

Old residential heating, cooling, and water heating systems perform inefficiently. New testing equipment and maintenance techniques can improve the energy efficiency of existing equipment and delivery systems. The energy auditor with a duct blaster can test your heating and cooling delivery system and provide accurate data on the efficiency of the system.

Improve Mechanical Equipment:

The efficiency of heating, cooling, and water heating equipment improved from 30% to 60% from 1973 to 1993. Equipment manufactures have continued to make improvements and today, gas furnaces have reached 95% efficient. Heat pumps and heat pump water heaters have made great strides and challenge natural gas in efficiency.

The Energy Star program has regulated appliance efficiency until the standard household appliances are more energy efficient than ever before. The refrigerator, dishwasher, and clothes washer operate on just 50% of the energy that was needed 20 years ago.

Resident Education:

Central to any retrofit weatherization program is household education. Occupant awareness of power saving equipment and methods is central to maximizing savings. The price of power may rise and fall, but our determination to increase household conservation and get the most out of our efficient equipment and appliances must not be a factor of the cost of energy. We all can see the dollar sign on a power bill, but successful household conservation requires a lifestyle adjustment.

Along with providing weatherization and home energy audit services, your power provider has likely developed a strong energy education program. In some cases, an Energy Educator can visit your home and provide a professional presentation and offer informational literature.

Join the energy auditors and the weatherization programs and look for the energy efficient potential of your home. Don’t just live in your home and pay the electric and gas bill, look for your homes energy efficiency potential like a gold prospector would look for a pot of gold. Chances are, you’ll find more gold in your house than Gabby and his donkey can find in yellow bottom creek.

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How to Look for a Good Real Estate Agent

You may be planning to sell your home or buy a new home. Either way, you’re probably looking for a great real estate agent.

Realtor, Real Estate Agent – is there a difference?

There are Realtors® and there are real estate agents. These are not synonymous terms. A real estate agent is licensed to “represent a buyer or a seller in a real estate transaction in exchange for commission.”Real estate agents typically work for a real estate broker or Realtor.

A Realtor also is licensed and may sell real estate as either an agent or a broker. There are completely ethical real estate agents and Realtor®. The primary difference is that a Realtor has made an additional commitment to honor the 17-article code and profession of the real estate business.

The search and some questions

Looking for a great real estate agent means that you will be asking questions, so let’s start building your list of questions:

Referrals: ask your friends, colleagues, and relatives for referrals. Most people who have had a positive experience working with an agent will gladly describe their experience and why they feel their agent was exceptional.

Referrals from professionals: it is certainly appropriate to ask real estate agents for referrals. Financial institution representatives, especially mortgage brokers, are likely to be aware of exceptional agents.

Open houses: going to open houses is a great, non-threatening way to meet estate agents. Pay attention to the agent’s manners and appearance, his/her professionalism, and the quality of promotional material provided at the open house. Does the agent seem knowledgeable about the property and the local market? Is the agent ready to point out the home’s features, or does he basically ignore visitors?
When you have a generally favorable impression of an agent, be sure to collect a business card and make notes of your observations.

References: plan to interview several agents before making a decision and signing a buyer’s agreement. During the interview, ask each candidate to provide referrals of recent clients and call those referrals.
Among the questions to ask are what were the asking and selling prices of their properties, and how long the home was on the market?

Take time to look up the estate board of licensing services to confirm that the candidate is currently licensed and whether any complaints or disciplinary actions have been filed against the agent.

Experience: how long has the agent been in business? You should be looking for the agent who thoroughly knows the local market in which you are selling or planning to buy your home. It takes time to build expertise and market knowledge. One agent recommends that any viable candidate should have at least five years’ experience.
Is the agent full- or part-time? You should expect, and ask for, a full time agent.

Next steps

When evaluating the qualifications of estate agents, look at their websites and current listings. Your future agent should be web and technology savvy, using all current media to help you find your perfect home or sell your current one. The agent should also be able to communicate reliably and regularly using the form(s) of contact you prefer – fax, phone, text, or e-mail.

Ideally, your prospective agent is busy but not too busy to effectively represent you. If you feel that the candidate is not committed to giving your sale or purchase full and enthusiastic service, or is prepared to hand you over to an “assistant”, move on.

Your agent should be realistic about pricing, marketing, and representing you as the seller or buyer.”If it sounds too good to be true… ” can apply to estate agents and services, too. Trust your powers of observation and intuition. When you combine them with the information you have gathered from your interviews, you will be ready to make a well-informed decision.

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Improve Your Poor Credit Score and Secure Yourself a Loan

So you are thinking of getting some extra money to make some urgent home repairs, the porch door needs replacing, along with a new hot water system. Unfortunately you do not have the money in the bank, but neither do you have a secure porch door or any constant hot water.

Have you considered personal loans? A lot of people take out personal loans for this type of repair. Car repairs and even holidays are used by people with their newly acquired finances. Most people have heard that a poor credit score is not a good thing (However even those that have a poor financial history can still get loans). But how do you make a good rating?

One of thing major pieces of advice from experts, before you apply for finance it is best to get a credit report completed from a reputable source. This will give you an idea of the chance of getting your application approved. In the United States of America there are three levels of credit rating, basically the higher it is the better it is.

An excellent rating is above 760, a good rating would be between 700 and 759 and a poor rating would be between 640 to 699. if you are at the top end, 760 and above then there is no point in making your rating any better. However with other ratings it is worth trying to improve as it will help your chances of succeeding in the application.

There does seem to be a bit of a chicken and egg situation sometimes, you need finance but have a poor score,but to improve you need a lender to give you a chance. Well, luckily there are things that you and your family if you have one, can do to improve your rating.

Having a poor rating does not mean you have to be stuck with it, starting to pay the bills on time instead of late or not at all will start to get you on the right path. Some lenders will still give applicants loans even with a low score, but the total given will be lower than usually and the percentage rate will be considerably higher. So you will pay more over the period of the finance.

Families can help too. If a member of your family has a good rating then some credit card companies can add you to that family members credit card as an authorized user, this will help with any poor credit score. Also having a family member with a good rating co-sign the loan could help you get what you need.

Finding the correct lender for your score is a good way to make sure that you are getting what you deserve, if you have a high score you deserve some of the best deals on the market. Instead of going to your bank or card company you can go online and search for a matching company. Companies like this are a good place go to make sure you achieve the best deal.

What are a matching company and what do they do? You enter your details on their online program and your information will be fed to several of their approved lenders, in turn the lenders will then return to the matching company with a list of loans that they are able to offer.

Once the offers come back it is then up to the applicant to choose one and complete all the necessary paperwork. A check will then be received within a matter of days and your new boiler and door fitted soon after.

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Payment Options for Shopping All the Way

Everyone is busy. Busy in shopping online and in the malls. Popular online portals are breaking and making new sale records! All thanks to the convenience and the availability of easy payment options and funds!

Here are few of the factors that are making online businesses a success

Credit Cards: A credit card is plastic money. It is one of the easiest form in which a person gets a personal loan.

All online portals as well as retailers in malls accept credit cards issued by various banks.
Online payment becomes very simple and safe, thanks to the one time passwords generated for such transactions.
A PIN is sufficient for shopping using a credit card at any retail store.

Personal loans for shopping: When we apply for a personal loan, we don’t have to provide the financier with the details of what we want the loan for.

Thus these days’ personal loans are being used to finance shopping.
They can also be used as wedding loans, vacation loans and educational loans.

Payment Processing: As far as payment processing is concerned, the following factors matter to both the consumer and the online retailer.

Uncomplicated manoeuvring on website: It is important for the payment process to be step-by-step and easy to understand. Most websites work on this section very carefully and thus the online shopping experience is satisfactory.

Processing Costs: Processing costs matter to the retailers. More the processing fees they have to pay to providers of payment gateways like Visa, the lesser are their margins. So to have an effective business the processing costs need to be low.
Number of payment options: Multiple payment options should be available for the customer to make payment. This makes the shopping a convenient proposition.
Time taken to process transactions: Processing time not only tests your patience but sometimes also the strength of your internet connection!

Cash on Delivery: This is also known as “collection on delivery.” This is a very popular mode of making payments for shopping in the developing world.

It enhances impulse purchases.
A credit card is not an essential possession for the buyer.
The buyer can check the quality of the product and then pay

So this festive season, do not hesitate to shop and to gift! The availability of funds for shopping is not difficult anymore. Also the convenience of online shopping has brought various retailers to our doorstep. So let us shop all the way!

An easy way of shopping is using a credit card. It forms an integral part of most people’s financial planning. When used in the right manner, it helps reduce financial liability and optimizes financial resources.

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Are Online Personal Loans Good For People With Bad Credit?

While the rise of online lending in itself makes it more convenient for people to apply for finance, is this development a good thing for those who are already struggling? There are companies out there who charge expensive annual percentage rates (APRs), leaving many people in more trouble than when they first started.

But it doesn’t have to be this way. Over the last few years, online lending has earned itself a bad reputation. The internet leaves many people vulnerable to fraud, so you should always exercise caution when inputting your financial details. The best way to make sure your information remains safe is to find a secure, reliable lending platform.

There is an unfair irony attached to lending today. Those with bad credit are often led to believe they have no financial options if they have made mistakes in the past, often making their situations seem more desperate than they actually are. This can result in people making bad decisions and can lead to borrowing through unstable sources.

Meanwhile, any lenders that do accept you with bad credit will charge extortionate interest rates because of your history, making it more difficult for you to meet your monthly repayment obligations – thus worsening your situation. This is a trap that many people fall into, and it gives online installment lenders a bad name.

However, this doesn’t need to be the case. If you can find yourself a reliable lending platform, you will be connected to a secure network of trustworthy lenders who can offer sensible solutions to your borrowing needs. Many of these lenders will assess your application, even if your credit file isn’t perfect or your income is lower than average.

Instead of (or in some cases, as well as) running credit checks, these lenders will take other factors into consideration, including your income and employment circumstances, and how long you have lived at your current address. They may even ask for references they can contact who will vouch for your character personally.

Even those who receive benefits as a form of income will be able to apply, giving everyone a fair and carefully considered chance of borrowing money. In these cases, applicants won’t be accepted for higher loans than they can afford to pay back, and interest rates will be low, meaning there is a better chance of managing repayments.

If you have poor credit and need to borrow money, consider a personal installment loan, but make sure the APR is advertised between 5.99% and 35.99%. There should also be a number of options in terms of flexible repayment, offering you the chance to pay the money back anywhere between six months and six years, depending on what you can afford to pay per month.

Small, carefully considered personal loans could actually help you build a financial profile making you eligible for better future borrowing. As long as the lender is responsible, and offers reasonable interest rates, online lending platforms can actually give people with more opportunities than many other lenders in terms of improving their situation.

With this in mind, personal loans can be beneficial to those hoping to improve their credit score, but only if some caution is exercised by both parties, and you only apply to borrow an amount you can afford to pay back.

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Five Reasons for Refusal of a Personal Loan

Don’t you wish personal finance were a mandatory course in college? Unfortunately, too many of us learn by mistake. When you need a personal loan and are rejected, you might be baffled as to what went wrong- and how to fix it. Here are some clues.


No credit is a situation where you have never used credit and therefore have no credit history for the bank to review. They have no way of making an educated decision on whether or not you will pay back a personal loan based on your credit history. No credit is worse than bad credit. Qualifying for and making regular payments on these types of introductory forms of credit can overcome a “no credit” score:

· Student Loans

· Secured credit card (includes a down payment amount)

· Being added to a parent’s or spouses good credit: card, car loan, etc.


Low credit takes on several forms. If you’re using more than 30% of your allowable debt, it can negatively impact your score. Too many inquiries from shopping around for loans will also hit you hard. Lapses in payment, defaults, or bankruptcies are giant red flags and can take a long time to rebuild from.

Other things that lenders may look at are whether or not you have sizeable assets should you default on the loan. They also check to see if your debts are diversified or if you are only carrying one type of debt.


Proof of income is generally required when applying for a personal loan. If you are unemployed or underemployed, it can work against you in the loan approval process. Lenders may also require a work history to see how long you have been with your current employer, and to determine if you typically have job stability. Frequent job loss or change will tell a creditor that your payments may not be reliable.


Believe it or not, your application can be rejected due to your proposed purpose for the loan. Financial institutions have the right to set up the parameters surrounding their disbursements and can accept or reject your application based on what you want to use the money for.


If you’ve defaulted on debt before, your name may be put on a list of whom not to loan to,’ also known as a “Blacklist.” This will follow you around for a long time and is difficult to erase. If you do resolve the debt issues, get documents to prove the resolution.

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How Can A Personal Loan Improve Your Credit Score?

When it comes to a personal loan, you have to first learn to use it responsibly. Because if you miss a repayment, your credit score will be impacted adversely. And remember, that a credit score is an indicator of how well you manage your personal finances. Also, it plays a defining role when you apply for any kind of loan – secured and unsecured. It is suggested to apply for a loan slightly larger than what is needed so that you will be assured to have enough money to pay all bills necessary and still have some money left over to ensure that your bank account stays current.

A credit score can be defined as a number which reflects the financial situation of a person. If the person is well-off when it comes to financial matters, then he or she is said to have a high credit score. On the other hand, if a person is the exact opposite of this, then they possess a low credit score. There are a lot of factors that are considered by financial institutions for the purpose of evaluating a person’s credit score – usually, the credit scores of people vary from 300 to about 850.

A personal loan is a type of loan that is given by digital lenders, banks and credit unions to aid you in your plans, be it starting a small business, or making a big purchase. Personal loans tend to have an interest rate(s) lower than the credit cards; however, they can also be put to use for combining several credit card debts together into one monthly lower-cost payment.

Now, your credit score is built by keeping in mind various parameters from your credit reports. These reports serve the purpose of trailing your history of utilization of the credit across the duration of seven years. These credit reports are comprised of information, including how much credit you have utilized to date, the type of credit in your possession, the age of one’s credit accounts, whether one has put in for bankruptcy or liens filed against them, actions of debt collections taken against them, one’s total open lines of credit as well as recent inquiries for hard credit.

Like any other type of credit, personal loans are very capable of affecting your credit score. This can be done through the process of applying and withdrawing a personal loan. If you are curious as to how personal loans can end up affecting your credit, then read on to find out more about the context. There are many ways in which your credit can be affected by personal loans and some of them are listed below:

The ratio of your debt-to-income and loan

Debt-to-income ratio is considered to be the measure of your amount of income that you spend on the debt repayments. In the case of lenders, the amount of income that you receive is said to be one of the major factors proving that you are able to repay your loan.

Some of the lenders have come up with their own debt-to-income ratio so that their proprietary credit scores may make use of it in the form of a credit consideration. Do not fall into the kind of mindset that possessing a high amount of a loan would hurt your credit. The most damage it can do is raise the ratio of your debt-to-income so that you won’t be able to apply for loans anymore without it getting rejected or denied.

Paying loans on time will make credit scores soar

The moment your loan is approved, you have to make sure that you settle the payments of each month on time and in full. Delay in repayment may significantly impact the state of your credit score. However, on the other hand, if you make the payments on time every month, then your credit score will soar high, leading to an overall good score. This will not only make your name to the preferred borrower’s list, but it will prove to be beneficial for you in the long run.

Since your payment history is comprised of almost 35% of your credit score, paying loans on time is essential in cases like these so that your credit score can maintain a positive status.

Variety is built into your credit type

There are about five factors that are responsible for determining your credit score. These are composed of the payment history, the length of the credit history, the utilization ratio of the credit, the credit mix and new inquiries of the credit in accordance with FICO®.

The credit mix only accounts for about 35% of your total credit score, whereas when it comes to a personal loan you can have a varying mix of the credit types. This mix of all types of credit is viewed at a high level of approval by the creditors and lenders.

Origination fee charged by loans

Most of the lenders end up charging you an origination fee. This fee cannot be avoided at any cost and is instantly taken off from the amount of the loan payment. The amount of origination fees depends upon the amount of the loan you are about to borrow. Late payments can lead to an overdraft of fees and late expenses. Therefore, make sure that you pay complete repayment for each month before the deadline.

Avoiding penalties when it comes to payments

Some of the credit lenders tend to charge an additional fee if you end up paying your part of the loan earlier than the agreed date. This is because they are looking for moderate amounts of interest on your loan. Now, seeing that you have paid off your part of the loan before time, they will miss out on that interest that they could have possibly made if you had not cleared the debt soon enough before the deadline.

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